Because allowing countries to address issues such as equity, and financing in the COP is a more efficient institutional arrangement for coordinating support for the implementation of activities in relation to mitigation actions in the forest sector by developing countries.
The draft text of the coordination of support for the implementation of activities in relation to mitigation actions in the forest sector by developing countries includes three options for institutional arrangements for coordination at the international level.
The first option of the draft creates National Coordinating Entities. The second option creates a REDD-plus body, as the overall advisory body to the Conference of the Parties, and the third option is that the SBSTA and SBI, at their fortieth sessions, to jointly continue their consideration of existing institutional arrangements or potential governance alternatives and make recommendations at the next COP.
The objectives of these different institutional arrangements for coordination would include:
- Strengthen, consolidate and enhance the sharing of relevant information, knowledge, experiences and good practices, at the international level, taking into account national experiences and, as appropriate, traditional knowledge and practices;
- Identify and consider possible needs and gaps in coordination of support, taking into consideration relevant information communicated under the Convention and other multilateral and bilateral arrangements;
- Consider and provide opportunities to exchange information between the relevant bodies established under the Convention, other multilateral and bilateral entities financing and funding the activities and elements referred to . . . on actions, and support provided and received for these activities;
- Provide information and views on the elements contained in paragraphs a, b and c above when providing guidance to the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, on means to scale up and improve the effectiveness of finance, including results based finance, technology and capacity building needs of developing country Parties, when implementing activities and elements referred to in decision . . . ;
- Provide information, as requested, to entities including, bilateral, multilateral and private sector entities that finance and implement the activities and elements referred to in decision . . . , and how these activities, including results-based actions, can be more effectively supported;
- Encourage other entities providing support, for the activities and elements referred to in decision . . . , to enhance efficiency, coordination and seek consistency with the operating entities of the financial mechanism of the Convention, as appropriate;
- Support the development of different approaches, including joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests considering the modalities of finance to be established, as agreed in paragraphs 14-20 of SBSTA 38, with a view to recommending a draft decision to the COP for adoption at its twentieth session;
Several major bilateral and multilateral funding initiatives have recently been created to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation (REDD-plus). Brazil has received the largest volume of REDD-plus finance through its Amazon Fund. Public and private finance may be able to play complementary roles in delivering REDD-plus finance. However, bilateral and multilateral agreements towards REDD-plus goals are also available financing options.
A REDD-plus body may be successful because all of the concerns posed by the developing nations, and the Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) are legitimate. Also, there is an increased efficiency because instead of countries having to reach out to multiple sources for funding, there would be only one international body, which would disburse the funds. Papa New Guainía (PNG) the leader of the CfRN has suggested that a REDD+ governance body is needed at the international level to review eligibility for results and coordinate support for REDD+ countries. The goal would be to provide a concise set of modalities on ways and means to distribute finance.
Many developed nations argue for the implementation of option three of the draft text. Reasoning that parties are better able to address issues related to financing at now, and at future COPs, either through negotiations or by holding workshops. Also, because each country has different financing needs decisions involving financing are best decided by private and public sources, or bilateral and multilateral arrangements between nations.